The Missing Case Of Amelia Earhart

Earhart pictured next to her plane, a Lockheed Electra before taking off to circumnavigate the globe at the equator. Photo courtesy of AP Photos

The day is July 2, 1937, and the world’s first woman to fly across the Pacific solo, Amelia Earhart, goes missing as she attempts to circumnavigate the globe at the equator. Earhart was preparing to land for refueling and for more supplies at the Howland Islands, where the Coast Guard along with the ship Itasca were deployed to aid her in landing. Earhart radioed the ship to inform them that she was low on fuel; but the Itasca could not pinpoint her location nor could she pinpoint theirs, despite the Itasca pumping miles of black smoke into the air. She radioed “one-half hour fuel and no landfall” and later tried to give information on her position.1 Soon after, contact was lost, and Earhart presumably tried to land the Lockheed on the water.2 After this, no news of Earhart emerged, and she was officially declared missing, along with her copilot, Fred Noonan. What happened to Amelia Earhart?

Theories suggest that Earhart crash landed near Nikumaroro, an island near her original destination, Howland Island. It is said that Itasca, the nearby ship sent out by the Coast Guard, was able to pick up her transmissions, which is why it is believed that she was near the Howland Islands. In 1940, the colonial administrator of Howland Islands, Gerald Gallagher, discovered thirteen bones in what seemed to be the remnants of a campfire. The bones were shipped to Fiji to be examined by Physician D.W. Hoodless, who examined the bones and determined that they belonged to a stocky, short man of European descent, which would seem to rule out Earhart and Noonan. After deciding this conclusion, Hoodless discarded the bones, completely eliminating the chance for further examination. However, the International Group for Historical Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) took Hoodless’s original measurements and found that the bones could have possibly belonged to a tall woman of European descent.3 Earhart was known to be around 5’7 to 5’8. To entertain the bone evidence, TIGHAR Director Ric Gillespie states that the lack of bones could be caused by the island’s coconut crab population. Coconut crabs are known to grow up to three feet long, and can break open coconuts with their claws. The crabs could have possibly carried the remains of bone and flesh to their burrows for feeding.

Along with these bones, a shoe sole was found with writing on it, stating, “Cats Paw Rubber Company USA.” The sole was from the same type of shoe that Earhart was pictured wearing in Indonesia shortly before her disappearance. However, the sole belonged to a size-nine shoe, which would have been too big for Earhart’s feet, disproving the possibility of it being hers. But along with the sole, a sextant, an instrument used to find latitude and longitude, was discovered with the bones and campfire.4 This instrument could have belonged to Earhart, as it was very common for pilots to navigate through longitude and latitude using a sextant. It made sense that Earhart and Noonan could have used the instrument to determine their location after landing. To further this theory, across the island are findings of campfires, along with remains of fish, clams, birds, and turtles. Based on the way the clams were opened and the way the fish were eaten without their heads, it is more plausibly the activity of non-pacific islanders.

A less likely theory suggests that Earhart and Noonan were given orders that if they could not find the Howland Islands, to crash land near the Marshall Islands, which at the time were controlled by Japanese forces. The purpose of this could be so that the US army could move towards the area, claiming that they were “searching for Earhart.” Another claim is that Earhart and Noonan were captured by the Japanese Army and eventually killed.5 Evidence exists that shows that at the time, locals claimed seeing the plane crash on the island. Also, in 1944, an Army Sergeant named Thomas E. Devine claimed that he came across a group of US Marines guarding a hanger containing Earhart’s Electra, on the formerly settled Japanese Island Saipan.

Believed photo of Earhart and Noonan captured by Japanese Forces. Earhart is sitting on the dock, while Noonan is standing to the left | Image Courtesy of National Archives

Furthermore, a photo found in the national archives suggests that the photo contains Earhart and Noonan after landing on the Marshall Islands. However, the photo was subsequently found in a Japanese textbook  published in 1935.6 Furthermore, experts claim that at the time, Earhart would not have had enough fuel to make it to the Marshall Islands, considering that in her last radio transmission, she claimed to have only seventy-four gallons remaining.

In conclusion, despite theories ranging from survival on islands to alien interference, most enthusiasts speculate Earhart crashed into the ocean, burned up in the crash, and sank to the bottom of the ocean. However, the world will never know what happened to Amelia Earhart unless the aircraft or a body is discovered. For now, the case of Amelia Earhart remains a mystery.

  1. Women In World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia, 2002, s.v. “Amelia Earhart,” by Doris L. Rich.
  2. Candace Flemming, Amelia Lost: The Life and Disappearance of Amelia Earhart (New York: Schwartz & Wade Books, 2011), 30-36.
  3. Kristina Killgrove, “The Mysterious Disappearance Of Amelia Earhart’s Skeleton,” Forbes Science Journal 02, no.1 (November 2016): 1-3.
  4. TIGHAR Project Amelia, “The Sextant Box Mystery,” Earhart Project Research Bulletin 2, no.12 (January 1999): 1-2.
  5. Johnny Dodd, “Does This Photo Prove Amelia Earhart Survived Her Flight,” Journal Of  Human Interest 14, no. 4 (July 2017): 1-2.
  6. Two Leaf Yakosubi Store, The life line of the sea My figure of the South Sea: South Sea archipelago photo book (Two Leaf Yakko Cloth Store, 1935), 34-35.

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This Post Has 80 Comments

  1. Hailey Stewart

    Stories about unsolved human disappearances are always intriguing to me. Earhart’s story in particular is interesting because there doesn’t appear to be any foul play involved. I enjoyed reading the different theories on what happened to Earhart. This article is well organized by discussing the most feasible theory first, then divulging into the more outrageous.

  2. Amelia Earhart’s story is shrouded in mystery. Not knowing what occurred to her, one can only speculate what occurred. It seems as though there are only two things that could have happened to Earhart: she either crashed into the ocean or landed on an island; either way, most agree that she probably died. Maybe one day, the remains of Earhart, Noonan (her copilot), or the airplane will be found, allowing everyone to know the truth surrounding this enigma.

  3. Emily Jensen

    I absolutely can’t stand a cliffhanger ending, which is exactly what Amelia Earhart’s story gives me. How scary it must have been to not be able to locate yourself in the middle of the ocean, where there is nothing but water as far as you can see. I can’t even begin to imagine how terrifying it was to have to crash land into the sea, what a nightmare. I hope that sometime in the future, with our ever-growing technological capabilities, we are able to find out what happened to her and her co-piolet all those years ago.

  4. Amelia Earhart is all time famous story in America. Reading this article refreshed my memory and even helped me learn something new. It’s crazy how she’s still missing to this day and not a trace has been found. I would love to hear about finding Amelia or even the plane as it’s such a big part of history. The theory of them being captured by the Japanese is something I’ve never heard and the picture in the article is something I’ve never seen. It was an amazing article and I couldn’t be more intrigued to find out what happened to her.

  5. I had always heard about the mysterious case of the disappearance of Amelia Erhart but had never entirely understood the story or the suggested reasons behind the crash. What especially stood out to me in this article of the picture showing Earhart in Japan after the crash. That feels like substantial evidence that one of the theories of the crash might be right. The likely hood of a picture that is so old being faked is quite low, maybe that is the key to figuring out the mystery.

  6. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to ever attempt fly solo across the pacific ocean. Being a woman Amelia was in a sexist field of work, men thought she would be able to fly over the pacific ocean due to her abilities of flying they were saying she couldn’t make it because of her gender. She started on the trip across the ocean she later went out of radar and her plane was never found. Because of this I believe she planned a escape somewhere thus playing a conspiracy theory on her story and disappearance.

  7. The story of Amelia Earhart is full of mystery. I was first told about Amelia Earhart when I was still in elementary school and at the time the only thing I could do was speculate. Now that i’m older i’ve come to some conclusions, but even then there is still much to speculate about. Ultimately, I believe she crash landed into the ocean and her body was never recovered. Great article about Amelia Earhart that will forever be shrouded in mystery

  8. Johnanthony Hernandez

    For as long as I can remember when I think of small planes, I think of Amelia Earhart. I wonder if we’ll every find out what happened to Earhart and her plane or if it will be one of those mysteries that we will never solve. Her determination inspired so many women to take charge of their destinies and be able to do how they please with their lives.

  9. I absolutely love mystery stories and find them incredibly fascinating and disturbing at the same time. The story of Earhart is an interesting one for sure, how it is still a mystery what truly happened to her and her copilot. I also find it intriguing of the image presented throughout the article, of allegedly Earhart and her copilot being captured by Japanese forces. If that was truly them, which in my opinion, I do not believe, than that changes the whole outcome of this story. This was an interesting mystery story and a great article to read.

  10. Carlos Vazquez

    Amelia Earhart is one of this country’s most beloved icons. Her disappearance was one of the biggest tragedies of the early 20th century. Although we may never know for sure where her remains are, it has led to many theories about her disappearance some as crazy as alien intervention. This article was really well written and informative and I really enjoyed reading this.

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