To Infinity and Pixar

Toy Story Fun | September 6, 2010 | Ed Bierman | Courtesy of Flickr

Winner of the Fall 2018 StMU History Media Award for

Article with the Best Title

Best Article in the Category of “Cultural History”

“It felt like it had taken a lifetime to get to this point, and in a sense it had.”1

 

Most of us grew up in a world where toys came to life when Andy wasn’t looking, a world where the monsters in our closet were afraid of us, a world where houses could fly with balloons. Pixar movies have created a world of magic and infinite possibilities. They have brought life and authenticity out of technology. Pixar has created a cinematographic empire like no other. Their success was forged out of mistakes and struggles as well as passion, creativity, and determination. Pixar had to make mistakes in order to grow and create the stories we love today, and they did.

Pixar’s story really starts with three men: Edwin “Ed” Catmull, Steve Jobs, and John Lasseter.

Pixar Computer | Computer History Museum | April 12, 2013 | Courtesy of Wikipedia

Ed Catmull was turned down for a teaching position and felt he had landed a software development job with no future. Steve Jobs had been humiliated throughout Silicon Valley when Apple Computer, the company he founded, fired him.2 John Lasseter was fired from his dream job as a Disney animator for trying to introduce three-dimensional animation technology there. He was told that if it didn’t make movie production cheaper or faster, it wasn’t worth it.3 All of these men were at a low point in their lives when they became part of the group of people that eventually became Pixar. What brought them out of this uncertain part of their lives was a single goal: to change the way stories are told by pushing the boundaries of what computers can do in animation and graphics by creating the first computer-animated movie in history. These people became the foundation of Pixar Animation Studios.

Not commonly remembered is the company’s inception as the Computer Graphics Division for Lucasfilm, the movie studio behind the Star Wars franchise, beginning in 1979. Through a series of events, Steve Jobs ended up buying this small struggling division in 1986 for five million dollars. He also gave it its iconic name. At that point, the company was selling computer hardware with the Pixar Image Computer as their main product. Their increasingly dwindling revenue also consisted of producing commercials for companies such as Trident and Listerine.4 With their financial struggles, and no clear path into the future of movie-making, Pixar was created.

Pixar’s goal moved further out of reach as they fired one-third of the company in 1991. At that point, Pixar had only sold three hundred Pixar Image Computers. They then decided to stop selling hardware. The five million dollars it had cost Jobs to buy the company had turned into a $54 million money pit. Its only source of revenue, and future survival, was a contract with Disney to produce three movies. There wasn’t even a guarantee that they could make the movies. Nevertheless, the team decided to take a leap of faith into the unknown path of creating computer-animated movies.5

Money was tight and there was constant miscommunication between the Pixar team and Jobs. Jobs was in the middle of establishing NeXT, a computer company he started after Apple. This meant that he rarely appeared in the Pixar offices. The Pixar team felt Jobs did not understand what they needed, and Jobs felt that the Pixar team had no idea how to run a business. Lasseter and Catmull would put out an idea and Jobs would shut it down immediately: the only way was his way. Jobs was described as brilliant and inspirational as well as dismissive, condescending, and bullying. It was clear, Pixar could not survive under Jobs. He simply did not connect with the company leadership and staff, but the company could not survive without him either.6

John Lasseter and Ed Catmull | February 28, 2010 | Jeff Heusser | Courtesy of Wikipedia

From the year 1987 to 1991, Jobs attempted to sell Pixar three times. Catmull reflected on this time, saying, “Even if Pixar doubled in value, Steve told me, we still wouldn’t be worth anything.”7 Microsoft, Alias, and Silicon Graphics all tried to acquire the company, but Jobs never sold it. Despite taking millions of dollars of his own money just to keep it afloat, he could not sell. It was his way of saying that he had something other people wanted, something special, that Pixar was worth having, despite its flaws. Every time a company made an offer for Pixar, he acted insulted, suggesting that he believed Pixar was worth much more. It was only after critics predicted that an animated film would be a hit and that Disney signed with Pixar to make their movie, that Jobs gave Pixar one last chance.8

There emerged some hope, as they assembled an excellent but inexperienced team in 1992. Catmull and Jobs began to understand each other and collaborate, and the first computer-animated movie was in its beginning stages. Production of the movie began in early 1993. Their dream was so close that they could see it; their dream was becoming a reality. Their first movie blossomed from Lasseter’s simple idea, the story about a group of toys and a boy.9

Toy Story was going to create a revolution within the technology, art, animation, and entertainment fields. Because this was going to be their debut film under their “mentor” company Disney, Pixar story writers took every advice they gave them to heart. Disney animators were the experts, and they had the success Pixar craved. Disney perceived Woody, a toy cowboy and one of the movie’s main characters, as “too perky, too earnest.”10 An edgier Woody would create a better conflict and a better story. Or so they said.

November 19, 1993 came. It was also known as “Black Friday.” On this day, a mock-up of Toy Story was presented to Disney executives. Months of hard work had been dedicated to making this idea become a reality, and finally … Disney shut down the project. There would not be an animated movie until they fixed the script.

They had technology and talent, but the entire concept was just not right. Something crucial was missing. For the next couple of months Lasseter, Catmull, and the entire team worked every possible moment to rediscover the soul of the project. By this time, special effects were starting to enter mainstream cinematography, with movies such as Jurassic Park and Terminator 2. People enjoyed the manner in which technology enhanced the movie experience, and Pixar was ready to be part of this innovation wave.

Pixar Exhibition at the CAP (Contemporary Art Pavilion) in Milan | December 4, 2011 | Pava | Courtesy of Wikipedia

The answer to their story problem was simple. They hit on the idea of a story of a boy and his toy cowboy. This experience taught them to trust their own abilities, to give Pixar its own character, and to do things the Pixar way.11

November 22, 1995. Toy Story was released to the world, to infinity and beyond.12

In total, Toy Story earned $362 million worldwide, it was a phenomenon. It had created an ingenious and creative new storytelling method. Now the graphics on the movie screen were perceived as having emotion and character. The movie had characters that had life in a way that was unprecedented from anything animators had done before. Pixar was able to create this emotional response because the overall theme was so human and relatable. With themes such as friendship, change, finding who you truly are, and your purpose in life, it is no surprise that though this movie was made for a young audience, it resonated with people of all ages. It was a masterpiece.13

The following year, Toy Story was nominated for three Academy Awards. John Lasseter received a Special Achievement Award. And Pixar announced its retirement from making commercials in order to focus on making more movies.

Due to its success with Toy Story, Disney pursued a partnership with Pixar. Shortly afterward, Pixar decided to open their company stock to the public. With this, they earned $140 million for the company. Pixar had accomplished something it had never done before; it was now a stable company.14

What started off as a constantly struggling company became an animation empire. Their stories have since touched the lives and hearts of people around the world. They’ve made us cry and they’ve made us laugh. Ed Catmull, Steve Jobs, and John Lasseter came together to change the world by creating the first computer-animated movie.

The rest is history.

  1.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 56.
  2.  David A. Price, The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Company (New York: Vintage Books, 2009), 8.
  3. Bill Capodagli and Lynn Jackson, Innovate The Pixar Way: Business Lessons from the World’s Most Creative Corporate Playground (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009), 31.
  4.  “Our Story,” Pixar, accessed August 31, 2018, https://www.pixar.com/our-story-1#our-story-main.
  5.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 53.
  6.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 51-52.
  7.   Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 54.
  8. Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 53; “Our Story,” Pixar, accessed August 31, 2018, https://www.pixar.com/our-story-1#our-story-main.
  9.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 54.
  10.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 57.
  11.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 57.
  12.   “Our Story,” Pixar, accessed August 31, 2018, https://www.pixar.com/our-story-1#our-story-main.
  13.  David A. Price, The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Company (New York: Vintage Books, 2009), 151.
  14.  Edwin Catmull and Amy Wallace, Creativity, Inc.: overcoming the unseen forces that stand in the way of true inspiration (New York: Random House, 2014), 60.

Tags from the story

Share this post

Share on facebook
Share on google
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on pinterest
Share on print
Share on email

This Post Has 167 Comments

  1. I cannot believe I had no idea of what a huge step in animated movie history the movie, “Toy Story” was. I love that movie. I cannot tell you the number of times my siblings and I watch that movie together. This was article was a great read and definitely deserved the title “Best Article in the Category of ‘Cultural History’ “. I enjoyed the way the story captivated the history behind creating the movie and the three men that were the reason for it all, Ed Catmull, Steve Jobs, and John Lasseter.

  2. You definitely earned that title award. I liked how you included that part about Jobs being a bully and how he couldn’t work with the team, yet the team couldn’t work without him. I can only imagine the frustration they must have been feeling. Pouring millions of dollars into this and getting nothing out of return. I honestly thank them for this constant pushing. Toy Story was an amazing movie and still is! I loved this article, good job!

  3. This was a very informative article, I never knew how Pixar started and how it came about. For all I know is the little lamp that bounces across of Monsters INC and says Pixar. But to show how three men made this name so famous and have built up their name in the movie industry, as self-success. I loved the structure of this article!

  4. such a cute article about the company that created one of my favorite movies! really enjoyed the way this article had the story flow. The article was extremely informative on a topic I had no prior knowledge of at all, like how much stey struggled as a company and tried to sell it so many times. I think its a lesson of how trying and trying can lead to beautiful outcomes.

  5. I think that this story is very informative. Many of us grew up watching Pixar movies and the classic scene with the lamp is something we immediately think of. Learning more about how Pixar started and how it came about is very interesting. Pixar was the vision of, three men, who at the time had no idea of the company’s future success.

  6. I enjoyed the story as it was well structured and flowed well. In my humble opinion, I believe Pixar’s origins are similar to Disney’s in some aspects. Walt Disney founded his animation studio with little to no money and few friends to help him along the way. At that time, Paramount Pictures had a essential monopoly over the movie business. Though Walt Disney had some scandals along the way, with his plagiarizing of other studio’s animation techniques and methods of animation, I believed the man to be a original and driven. It was later on, after Walt Disney’s death,that Disney produced less original and creative content. They stopped creating content that pushed boundaries and expectations. Thankfully, Pixar didn’t make the same mistake when they did business with Disney and signed contracts that protected their creative processes.

  7. Wow this story is honestly so inspirational, I had no idea that Jobs played such an influential role in the coming up of Pixar or that the company was founded by three men who were at a low point in their professional lives. I also did not know that Pixar started off by making commercials for companies, it’s so awesome that they kept true to what they wanted to do and worked towards their goals through all of the tough lows that the company went through because now they are such a big and influential company to society’s culture today.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Close Menu